List of Monumental sculpture projects 2015

  • 1 http://swannbb.blogspot.fr/2015/02/sunday-robot-play.html
  • 2 http://shuengitswannjie.blogspot.fr/2015/02/interactive-reading-room-tea-house-2015.html
  • 3 http://swannbb.blogspot.fr/2014/06/neo-ming-bed-luxembourg.html
  • 4 http://swannbb.blogspot.fr/2013/02/yuzi-paradise-tell-moon.html
  • 5 http://swannbb.blogspot.com/2011/09/12th-changchun-international-sculpture.html
  • 6 http://www.saatchionline.com/Shuen-git

Sunday, 25 June 2017

buzzing sound of a lute

design of the lute body w ridges


http://www.lutesociety.org/pages/rattle-and-hum

Rattle and hum: Extraneous noises and how to cure them, by Lynda Sayce

(Originally printed in Lute News 44, December 1997)
Having sorted out a bewildering variety of different buzzes on various students’ lutes, and having been surprised by the cause of one on my own, I thought it worthwhile to jot down some of the commoner causes (and cures) for the benefit of anyone else so troubled. Almost anything on a lute can buzz if given half a chance and the following list is unlikely to be comprehensive! It can be surprisingly difficult to track down the site of the noise, so you’re to avoid glum hours listening to your lute making avant garde noises, it’s best to be systematic in your diagnosis, which basically means identifying when the buzz occurs.
1. Buzz centred in the body, which comes and goes, getting worse when the weather is dry (or the lute is in a heated place), and improving or disappearing when the humidity rises.
  • This is almost certainly a loose bar inside the lute, or a crack in the back or the soundboard, either of which require the maker’s attention. Note, however, if you use overwound gut strings it could also be these, as the gut core of the string can shrink away from the winding in the dry weather.
2. Buzz occurring on similar or related frequencies, (for example, all the Gs buzz).
  • This is probably either a loose end on one of your G string(s), cured by pruning, or (less probably) a loose bar.
3. Buzz occurring on open strings only.
  • This may be caused by a faulty string, usually a wound one, or the first fret is too high, or the string is buzzing in the nut. Change the string if it looks dodgy. Check the fret, by cutting it off if necessary; you can always replace it. If it seems to be a buzz in the slot it’s best dealt with by a maker unless you’re very handy with a microfile. Beware – it is all too easy to make a slot worse!
4. Buzz occurring on fretted notes only.
  • If several buzzes occur at the same fret on different strings, then you need to change some frets. If several buzzes occur on the same string at different frets, perhaps the string is tied a little too low at the bridge, or the nut slot for that string is too deep, or it’s a faulty string. Strings can be pulled up by hooking a finger underneath them at the bridge, and pulling quite firmly away from the soundboard; this has the effect of making them lie higher on the bridge. If the nut slot is too deep, a piece of paper under the string makes a reasonable temporary measure, until you can consult a maker. If multiple courses buzz on multiple frets along the neck, horror of horrors, it may be that the neck is warping backwards, and needs either to be replaned, or removed and reset – major surgery. This defect is mercifully rare; it is much more common for necks to come forward under prolonged string tension, causing the opposite problem, an action that is too high at the higher frets.
5. Buzz occurring on any note on a course, whether open or fretted.
  • Typically this fault is found on double courses of thin wound strings. The strings are either mismatched or are due to be changed. Wound strings can shed little rings of winding which then trundle up and down the string each time it is plucked, creating a spectacular buzz. They are very hard to spot so check carefully with eyes and fingers.
6. Loud rattle on open diapasons of archlute, theorbo or swan-necked baroque lute, especially on the lowest courses. Typically worse when the string is plucked hard.
  • The upper nut is either too low, or too curved, causing the strings to rattle against the edge of the body. This can also afflict extended neck lutes if they are tuned down to a lower pitch: the neck can settle back a little from its normal tensioned state, causing the strings to hit the body of the lute where they cross the edge of soundboard. The nut can be raised with a sliver of wood or card beneath it, but take care not to leave it perched precariously in a too-shallow slot. If the nut needs major reshaping consult a maker.
7. Sitar-like whining noise, confined to open strings
  • The sitar’s whine is created by a ramp which almost touches the string at the bridge. When the string is plucked it vibrates against this ramp. Exactly the same effect can be achieved accidentally by a poorly-cut nut slot which is only partially in contact with the string. Such a whine can also be caused by inadequate string break at the nut; particularly common on extended lutes and baroque guitars. This can sometimes be cured by rewinding the string to lie lower on the peg (on a guitar) or to pull more sharply sideways on a lute or theorbo. The latter is not ideal because a crookedly wound string may cause the peg to pop out, but is useful in emergencies. To solve it get a maker to tidy up the nut slot.
8. Sitar-like whining noise on open and fretted notes.
  • This is probably caused by two strings vibrating against each other somewhere between nut and peg. Look particularly carefully at any strings which touch each other in the pegbox. This can be cured by rewinding the strings so they don’t touch, or if this is difficult, by inserting a small snippet of cloth between the offending strings. This is particularly common with lots of courses and long pegboxes.
9. Erratic little buzz on any note, which comes and goes, and seems to be unrelated to climate. It may paradoxically get better if you put the lute in its case and pick it up again.
  • This may be a loose endpin, a loose pip or a collar on a peg, a hard buckle on a strap or a bit of rubbish, like a woodshaving, trapped in the pegbox. The mere act of moving the lute can cure this temporarily, but to solve it permanently you need to check all of those points carefully, and reglue anything that’s come loose. You may also need to hold your lute with the rose facing down and shake it periodically to remove odd bits of grit and dead insects that inexplicably end up inside lutes. Invariably some of them will be too big to come out through the rose holes, but you can remove some rubbish in this way.
10. Muffling of a gut diapason, sometimes with an accompanying buzz.
  • This is probably the string starting to unwind. Somewhere along the string’s length you will find a little hair coming unravelled. You can prolong the life of the string and restore its sound by pruning the hair back to the string with nail scissors.
As a general rule the following precautions can prevent a lot of noises. Keep your lute in conditions with at least 50% humidity; this means installing some form of humidifier in the room where the lute is kept, if your house is centrally heated in winter. Alternatively a damp flannel placed in a protective polybag inside the case (and not touching the lute) will do the trick. When you change strings prune all ends neatly and closely at both bridge and peg ends, especially wound strings (except nylon-on-nylon wound strings which you must not cut!) – little stray lengths of metal winding wire brushing against soundboard or pegbox walls are among the commonest causes of buzz. Check that the strings lie tidily away from their neighbours in the pegbox. Keep your frets in good order and change any that look worn. Make sure that you use the correct size of gut for each fret.

Saturday, 24 June 2017

Mao Yi 茅毅 - about guqin materials, repairs and creations

七弦琴材料的认识
2茅毅 016-05-23 《国艺》杂志 國藝NationalArt
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“最受高品质人群青睐的艺术杂志”
茅毅 
号可庐山人,我国知名古琴演奏家,精于古琴制作与修复。早年毕业于日本中部乐器专门学校乐器修造专业及南京艺术学院作曲与理论专业。高级调律师,中国琴会理事,中国昆剧古琴研究会理事,青岛黄岛区古琴协会会长,诸城派第六代传人(自幼师从祖母高松如八载),广陵派第十二代传人(十八岁师从梅曰强十二载)。出版古琴专辑 《松涛》《疏影》。曾受邀于清华大学,北京大学,北京师范大学,复旦大学,南京大学,中国药科大学,太湖大学堂,厦门大学,集美大学等举办古琴讲座。2014在欧洲举办古琴音乐会巡演。
七弦琴材料的认识 
茅毅-文
木材是由许许多多失去生命活力的管状细胞组成的。每个细胞均有细胞腔和细胞壁,细胞腔中空,周围是木质化的纤维物质构成的壁层,使木材结构呈“蜂窝状”。细胞腔中的空气和构成细胞壁的物质都具有较高的声音透过性,易于传播声音。

制作一把七弦琴要用好几种木材,但一般七弦琴的主要部分——面板、底板,都是用杉木和梓木这两种材料制成的。古代的七弦琴制作者也曾试用过青桐、槐木、炮桐、柳木、白木松、涩木、松木等制面板,用枫、黄花松、金丝楠、椿、黄花梨、红木、松、柏、樟等木材来制琴背,自唐著名的制琴家族雷氏开始用
杉木、梓木制七弦琴后,各代均多以其制琴,一方面是两种木材的树径大,生长普遍,在中国很容易找到,另一方面,制作者和演奏者发现它们是取得乐器优良声音的最佳组合。

杉木具有很好的传声性能,其中
云杉是最好的制造乐器的材料,其顺纹(沿着树干)方向的传声速度约为4800到5800m/s,是空气的几十倍,碳素纤维铁的传声速度相当,但是,这两种材料密度要比云杉大得多。此外,云杉纹理通直,材质致密,年轮宽度均匀,并且在每一个年轮中,早材至晚材的过渡较为平缓,细胞的大小与形态较为整齐均一,各部分木材结构无显著差异,这样有利于均匀的传播高频声音而不变音调,对乐器而言材质对音色起着更关键的作用。

杉木的种类很多,材料的差异很大。苏联科学家安德烈耶夫研究确定了一定单位度量上的共振木材。指出作为共振木材应该具有高弹性模量(坚硬),同时又要求具有不大的密度(材质轻)。木材中高弹性模量的材质往往密度都较大,而低密度的木材又不可能有较高的弹性模量。即乐器材料的声学品质常数与木材传声速度的平方根成正比,与材料密度的平方根成反比,就是说木材的弹性模量要高,传声速度要快,密度就要小(同样体积的木材,重量要轻)所以,一般乐器制造共鸣箱时往往采用两种甚至多种共振木材合成。古琴的琴体用材面“杉”而底“梓”,这两种共振木材的物理性能是符合现代科学道理的。古人用材讲“刚”、“柔”、“虚”、“实”、“阴”、“阳”。如果不使用现代科学理论数据进行推断测算,我们又如何理解他们的确切含义呢?所以现在有一些制作者的工作室中是用声速仪来测定材料的传声速度,用单位体积的重量来计算材料的密度,从而对木材的声学品质做出判断。这种方式不但对材料的选择,而且对制造七弦琴时对声音的设计,都有很大帮助。与木材的声学品质有密切关系的还有它的声辐射品质常数、声阻抗、声衰减系数等等。这些数据的取得,可以用传统的测试和计算方法,也可以用先进的计算机分析方法。

宋代古琴扫描电子显微境截面照片 (图1)

















材料的处理
和其它的木材制品一样,七弦琴材料需要在干燥后才能使用。但是另一方面,七弦琴材料的干燥又与其它木材制品很不一样,必须经过长期的储存才能使用。这个储存的阶段一般把它叫做天然干燥,实际上,它既与干燥有一定的关系,又不完全是木材与水分的关系。
清代古琴显微境截面照片,孔间侧壁光滑
木材在干燥、通风的条件下储藏,其含水量飞速下降。在半年到一年的时间里,就和周围空气湿度趋于平衡。在这以后,木材的含水量,就随周围空气湿度的变化而变化。我们知道这种木材容易吸收空气中水分的现象,主要是因为木材的纤维素中含有很多羟基。羟基的一个化学键是开放的,非常活泼,很容易与空气中的水份结合,增加木材的水份含量。而木材的水份含量是影响木材声学品质的主要因数,它直接影响到琴的声音。如果用没有经过长期储存的木材制成琴,当天气干燥时它的声音变得明亮,而在阴雨天它的声音就变得沉闷。大家注意到,在古旧的乐器上或用处理得很干燥的木材所制成的乐器上,这种现象虽然也有,但变化要小得多。古旧木材的含水率稳定在10%左右。这就是说,旧的木材和古老的木材与空气中的湿度关系减小(有些用不正确木材处理方法的古乐器除外)。这是因为在长期储存过程中,羟基的自由键互相结合,成为十分稳定的大分子。鉴于这种现象,许多科学工作者和制琴家一直在进行各种试验,加速木材的老化,或者采用各种方法,改变木材的化学结构,减少其空气湿度的相关性,改善乐器的声学品质。就目前资料介绍的方法,有浸泡和涂刷、熏蒸、热处理、酸处理、发酵处理、氧化处理、光处理、微波处理等等。处理过的材料制成的琴,音质更接近古琴。 

在截面上管孔,尺寸约30um左右和上次的宋琴结构基本相同,但分布不如前者均匀

实际上人们早就观察到古琴的材料与新材料之间的区别,而且认识到材料之间的差别是影响古琴与现代琴之间的音质差别的重要因素之一。(图1)为清华大学电子系的扫描电子显微镜分系古琴木材结构照片,样片取自于古琴龙池下的琴面木材。从截面照片来看,清代古琴和宋代琴的面板切片时发现一般在树木死亡后就关闭的纹孔在古琴上是开着的。截面上管孔尺寸约为30um,二者基本一致,但清代古琴的孔间侧壁更为光滑。在侧壁的横向尺度上进行扫描,发现宋代古琴次生壁的凹陷的文孔,直径约为3um,密集分布,从音色上看,宋代古琴的音色也比清代古琴更幽远
宋代古琴次生壁的凹陷的文孔,直径约为3um,密集分布,且无论在横截面还是生长面都有分布SEM分析,O含量远远超过其他材料
另外我们对古琴琴面材料的成分进行了能谱分析(EDS),对宋代古琴,清代古琴和新古琴进行了对比,发现新木材含有一定的O元素,但是旧木材没有,在清代琴上面也很难观察到,但是在宋琴的木质结构中,O元素的含量远远高于一般的木材,可以肯定宋代的木材在处理方法上是有一些特别的地方,对于大量的O元素成分,我个人认为有大量的真菌在河水浸泡时繁殖真菌的生长打开了纹孔。这些开放的小孔增加了木材的透气性,从而改善了材料的声学品质。

宋代古琴漆面之八宝素髹工艺

目前,我们对古琴的材料和木材在长期储过程中发生的变化研究的非常不够,很多结论还仅仅处于推想的过程中。自然界中的一些现象,看起来简单,实际上却有许多错综复杂的原因。
流水断与牛毛断
还有一个有趣的现象,就是古琴,在下雨天时琴面和内腔会“出汗”,而新七弦琴则不会有此现象
蛇腹断
大漆
天然生漆,又名大漆、上漆、国漆,是从漆树上割下来的天然液汁。它是我国著名特产,是一种优质的天然涂料,
至今没有一种合成涂料能在坚硬度、耐久性等主要性能方面超过它。因此,它有“涂料之王”的美名。

漆膜具有优良的物理机械性能。如漆膜坚硬,漆膜的硬度达0.65-0.89漆膜值/玻璃值。而一般合成漆的漆膜硬度仅0.2-0.4。

漆膜耐磨强度大,耐磨性优于任何合成树脂和其它涂料。漆膜光泽明亮,而且持久。漆膜密封性好,针孔非常少,粘性好,与木质的附着力强。

中国是世界上产漆最多、用漆最多的国家,漆具有悠久的历史。浙江余姚河姆渡发掘的
朱漆碗,已有7000年的历史。河南信阳长台关出土的漆瑟,彩绘有狩猎乐舞和神怪龙蛇等形象的漆画,也有2000余年的历史。著名的还有湖南长沙马王堆出土的汉代漆棺上的漆画、山西大同司马金龙墓漆屏风画以及明清大量的屏风漆画等。

由于天然生漆具有
防腐蚀、防渗透、防潮、防霉、耐酸等性能,漆膜具有硬度强、耐磨的特点,七弦琴从一诞生就髹以天然生漆,可以保持木材,使琴音持久不变,笔者使用过的古琴的音准较新琴更稳,音质更美,因为木材与漆层早以定型。另一方面漆面有着美丽耐久的光泽,稽康琴赋中有:“错以犀象,箱以翠绿,嵌蚌具体”之句,故传世的唐、宋、元、明、清各代保存下来大量的古琴,有些是艺术价值极高的艺术品。

王世襄在其《中国古代漆器》一书中指出,中国古代漆艺的高境界在古琴上有突出表现。古琴中的髹漆工艺有力地推动了部分漆艺技法的发展和形成,同时也在漆器制作的领域拓宽了范围,例如唐代的螺甸平脱技法应用在制琴上,丰富了漆艺技法的语言;唐宋素髹工艺以漆液自身的独特材质,体现出古人的高雅精妙、贴近自然的艺术情趣。

元 王振朋 伯牙鼓琴图卷(二版全卷) 绢本 31x92cm
宋代赵希鹄《洞天清录》中说:“古琴以断纹为证,不历五百年不断,愈久则愈多。然断有数等,有蛇腹断,其纹横截琴面,相去或一寸或二寸;有细纹如发千百条。有梅花断,其纹如梅花头,非千百载不能有。真断有剑锋……”漆器年代久远而出现的裂痕叫断纹,断纹在漆器上实际是一种毛病,一般漆器也很少出断,成因很复杂,如底胎木质未干透,底漆灰胎过厚等等,古琴的断纹和一般的漆器断纹成因有所不同,就目前所知的漆器来说,除了夹贮之外,大体不外乎木胎、金属、及陶胎等几类。七弦琴大部分是木胎,发生在木胎器上的断纹和木材的纹理是相反的,如直木纹上现横的断纹。古琴的首尾两端,为木材的横截面,就很少见到有琴身上那样的断纹。可见断纹形成的原因之一是由于气温、湿度、气压的变化,使得木材与漆胎的伸缩比例不同而发生的;金属、陶胎上不存在木材那样的纹理,因而产生不定向的断裂,断纹的产生是一种物理现象;断纹产生的第二个原因是年久漆质老化的结果。
古琴家不但不将断纹视为琴的毛病,反而以断纹为贵,究其原因是声学品味上声音的声辐射品质常数声阻抗、声衰减系数有明显改善,弹奏者感觉到琴音火气小,通透松沉,是一种难得的享受。

总而言之,材料在长期的储存过程中发生了很多变化,有的是化学变化,有的是物理变化。这些化学和物理的变化引起了古琴木材的声学品质的变化。我们观察到这些变化的存在,意识到这些变化对提高七弦琴的声学品质的重要性,从而开始研究这些变化的原因和它们的规律,研究控制这些变化莫测的可能性。和人类对许多自然现象的认识一样,这种研究需要有一个很长的,逐步认识的过程。
2009年4月15日
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3d printed musical instruments, egg shells nano particles

http://www.notey.com/@hackaday/external/3322421/3d-printed-instrument-roundup.html

on 3d printed instruments

https://www.google.com/patents/US20090308220

STONE TONE MUSIC, INC., FLORIDA

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7482518.html


1. Field of the Invention

The invention relates to a stringed musical instrument having a soundboard and/or other enhancements made of a dense material, in particular, granite, and more particularly, to a music generating device including acoustic instruments and electrically amplified musical instruments, with further particularity, the invention relates to a high density veneer and/or other stone enhancements for a string instrument such as a guitar, bass, banjo, viola, cello. Dobro™ and lapsteel guitar, and the like.
2. Related Art
It is well recognized that wood, in particular aged wood, makes an ideal material for such musical instruments such as a piano, violin, guitar, or the like. U.S. Pat. No. 3,769,871 to Cawthorn for a “Stone Guitar With A Tuned Neck”, issued in 1973. The patent discloses a heavy stone slab, typically 1 to 1.125 inches thick for use in guitars. According to the patent, the flat stone body is of a mineral or petrified matter such as granite, marble, onyx, rose quartz, petrified wood, or agate. It can have a hollowed out cavity for the electric pickups. It is a solid body guitar except for the cavity for the electrifying of the guitar. It is further disclosed that the cavity can be covered with a conventional pick guard.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,267,499 to Othon, discloses a method of enhancing and modifying the visual and aural characteristics of a stringed instrument wherein the flat surfaces of a stone and the body of a stringed instrument are adhesively secured together. The stone is worked while the stone is bonded to the instrument to reduce the thickness of the stone and produce a stone laminate. According to the disclosure of the patent, the stone employed may be extremely dense and hard, extremely soft (soapstone being an example), or anywhere in between in order to provide the desired effect. An extremely hard rock, for example, will give the musical instrument great sustain properties. A softer rock or stone, on the other hand, may be used to affect the sound in other ways, such as “softening” the tone and resonance. The patent further discloses that when the stone laminate is positioned at the pick guard of an electric stringed instrument, the aural characteristics are affected due to shielding of the instrument's electronic components.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,097,514 for an Equilateral Tetrahedral Speaker discloses that the enclosure can be constructed of dense material such as a CORIAN™ material to minimize enclosure coloration. CORIAN™ is Dupont's registered trademark for its premium quality brand of solid surface product that is a solid, homogeneous, filled material containing methyl methacrylate.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,190,739 for High-Fidelity Stereo Sound System discloses that in an actual embodiment of a surface, marble gravel was glued across the surface of a parabolic surface like the parabolic surface of well-known microwave antennas.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,805,221 for the Construction of Sound Converter in Sound Guide Especially for Loudspeakers, for Example Speaker Boxes, discloses that the conventional technology for attaining this object consists in providing the sound guide and housing with sufficiently thick walls, adding braces and reinforcements, and/or selecting a material which has high internal clamping. Examples of this are speaker boxes made of concrete, marble, ceramic Plexiglas, and aluminum.

SUMMARY

According to a first broad aspect of the present invention, stone can be used as a resonating surface for an acoustical device, such as a musical instrument. With many such instruments, weight of the instrument is a critical factor. For example, musicians generally reject guitars that weigh over 8 or 9 pounds. Similar weight limitations apply to other string instruments, such as banjos, mandolins, violins, and the like. An instrument such as a piano generally does not have a weight limitation from the standpoint of a performer but practical considerations limit the weight of pianos.
According to another broad aspect of the invention, it has now been found that although a material such as granite would not resonate in a manner comparable to wood, providing a stringed musical instrument with a thin acoustical veneer of stone as a sound board, in conjunction with grounding and interconnecting, and having stone as the major sound-generating components of the instrument, dramatic acoustic benefits can be produced. The added stone enhancements are designed to connect and vibratically unify the soundboard, strings, bridge system, pickups, neck and body in a time-correct sound transfer loop.
According to a further broad aspect of the invention, it has now been found that the added stone enhancements collective mass and high-efficiency transmission rate focuses, retains and centralizes the instruments core vibrations producing a balanced, compressed, naturally equalized sound with remarkable clarity and sustain with minimal distortion. It should be understood, that when reference is made to a veneer, it is not intended to be inclusive of a mere thin, decorative layer, such as typically made from materials such as wood, metal, paper or plastics. The veneer must be of sufficient mass to function as an acoustic material. For an instrument like a guitar, a granite veneer is preferably in the range from about ⅛ to 11/16 of an inch.
According to still another broad aspect of the invention, connecting and vibratically unifying the soundboard, strings, bridge system, pickups, neck and body in a time-correct sound transfer loop, produces a balanced, compressed, and naturally equalized sound, with remarkable clarity and sustain, and with minimal distortion.
In another aspect of the invention, the vibratical unification is produced through the use of high sound conductivity materials to acoustically interconnect the soundboard, strings, bridge system, pickups, neck, and body in a time-correct sound transfer loop. The high sound conductivity material can be a mineral such as stone, in particular granite, ceramics, metals, and other high density solid materials.
The guitars body weight, in combination with the other instrument component, must be no more than nine pounds and preferably no greater than eight pounds. Most preferably, the total weight of a guitar is no greater than eight pounds. Thus, the basic components are maintained at a minimum weight and the dense acoustic veneer provides the additional weight to bring the weight of the instrument to the desired maximum weight.
According to another broad aspect of the invention the weight of the veneer or soundboard, as for example, granite is at least two pounds and preferably, at least three pounds, but no greater than five pounds. While this is preferable for a standard size guitar, other instruments can use either heavier to lighter weights of material.
It should be evident that the mass of the dense acoustic layer is far in excess of that which would be used for mere decorative purposes. Stated another way, the veneer layer has sufficient mass to function as an acoustic resonating material. The dense acoustic veneer does additionally provide the functional advantage of high durability and dramatic aesthetic appeal. In some instances, the veneer can be thinner than noted above, when used in combination with one or more blocks of granite embedded in the body to provide the desired mass and resonance qualities.
According to a further broad aspect of the invention a stringed musical instrument is provided having a body section and a headstock secured to the body section by a neck region. The headstock includes means for securing the distal ends of a plurality of strings to the musical instrument. A bridge supports the proximal ends of said strings above the body section, and anchoring means secures the proximal ends of the strings to the body section of the musical instrument. A stone soundboard is secured to the body section for enhancing the acoustical output of the musical instrument. The soundboard, most advantageously is a layer of granite having a thickness in the range from about ⅛ to about ⅜ of an inch.
In one embodiment of the invention, the body section is a solid piece of wood, having a plurality of recessed areas. In another embodiment of the invention, the stringed musical instrument has a hollow body section, a head stock secured to said body by a neck region (said head stock providing a means for securing the distal ends of a plurality of strings to the head of the musical instrument), a bridge to support the proximal ends of said strings above the soundboard, means for securing the proximal ends of the strings to the body of the musical instrument, and a soundboard secured to said body section, wherein the soundboard is a thin acoustical layer of granite. In both embodiments the instrument includes one or more granite blocks or sound transfer rods which collectively contact and acoustically interconnect the soundboard, body, bridge/tremolo system, pickups, the string anchoring member, and the neck region. The advantages of the present invention are independent of the design of such components as the tremolo and pickups.
In a further embodiment of the present invention, a granite pickup tray acoustically supports an instrument pickup. The granite pickup tray is a granite block generally having a thickness of roughly one eighth of an inch. Most preferably, each of at least two pick-ups is in physical, that is, acoustic contact with transfer rods and each of the transfer rods are in acoustic contact with the soundboard, the underside of the pickup trays, the neck joint, and the bridge block.
In still a further embodiment of the invention, a ceramic or metal pickup tray acoustically supports an instrument pickup. The ceramic or metal pickup tray is a block generally having a thickness less than one eighth of an inch. The size of the ceramic, metal, or granite block is relative to the mass of the block. Accordingly, size of the block is inversely proportional to the density of the block. Most preferably, each of at least two pick-ups is in physical, that is, acoustic contact with transfer rods, and each of the transfer rods are in acoustic contact with the soundboard, the underside of the pickup trays, the neck joint, and the bridge block.
The present invention provides a system for producing vibratical unification of components of a musical instrument comprised of a soundboard, a plurality of strings, a bridge system, a neck and a body. The system acoustically interconnects each of the components in a time-correct sound transfer loop. An acoustically high sound conductivity material selected from the group comprising minerals, ceramics, metals, and combinations thereof, is employed to acoustically interconnect the major sound components of the musical instrument and thus produce a balanced, compressed, and naturally equalized sound, with extreme clarity and sustain, and with minimal distortion. The acoustically high sound conductivity material has a specific gravity on the order of at least 2, and preferably at least the specific gravity on the order of the specific gravity of granite. Advantageously, the specific gravity is at least four, and can be six or higher.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will be described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which;
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a stringed musical instrument, specifically, a guitar, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective views of a solid body guitar having recesses in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross-sectional side view of a solid body guitar having acoustic enhancement elements, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary cross-sectional side view of a hollow body guitar having acoustic enhancement elements, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a soundboard in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a soundboard in accordance with an another embodiment of the present invention; and
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary cross-sectional side view of a string anchoring region of a guitar in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary cross-sectional side view of an alternative string anchoring region of a guitar in accordance with another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary top view of the string-anchoring region of a guitar in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a guitar having an insert of high density material set into the wood of the guitar, as in the style of a frame;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of a guitar having an insert of high density material set into the wood of the guitar, as in the style of an inlay; and
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a guitar having an insert of high density material set into the wood of the guitar, as in the style of an inlay that extends from the neck of the guitar to the string anchor.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

It is advantageous to define several terms before describing the invention. It should be appreciated that the following definitions are used throughout this application.

DEFINITIONS

Where the definition of terms departs from the commonly used meaning of the term, applicant intends to utilize the definitions provided below, unless specifically indicated.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “pickup” refers a standard electromagnetic pickup, a pickup such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,770,807, to Myers, issued Aug. 3, 2004, any of the patents cited in the Myers patent, the disclosures of which are all incorporated herein by reference, or any design hereinafter invented. The term “instrument pickup” refers to the general class of pickups including, but not limited to piezo pickups and magnet field pickups.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “acoustic contact” as employed herein, means that two elements are held in firm physical contact, as for example by a non-acoustic insulating or isolating layer of adhesive, or by physical pressure, such that sound vibrations are transmitted from one element to another without significant loss. As taught in the aforenoted co-pending patent application, the gluing operation must be cared out in a manner that assures that the adhesive does not function to clampen sound transmissions from one element to the other.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “vibratical” as employed herein, means that two elements are joined together such that the vibratory motion a first element is rapidly transferred to a second element, substantially free of loss of vibratory energy and substantially free of vibration alteration. Vibratic transfer is also characterized by vibrational transfer with minimal distortion. The accurate transfer of vibrations from element to element requires firm physical contact, as for example, through the use of a non-acoustic insulating or isolating layer of adhesive, and/or by physical pressure, such that sound vibrations are transmitted from one element to another without significant loss.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “block studs” refers to a device that connects to the bridge of the instrument.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “block” is a mass of any solid piece of a hard substance, such as granite, ceramic, metal, and the like. A block can have any shape ranging from an elongated rod like shape, to having one or more flat sides, and is inclusive of spherical and curved masses. A block is used as a support and/or a vibratical element that is characterized by transmitting acoustical vibrations are from one element to another, without significant loss.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “bridge” is inclusive of the tremolo type as disclosed and described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,057, or U.S. Pat. No. 6,143,967 to Smith, et al for a Tremolo for Guitar, the disclosures of which is incorporated by reference herein as though recited in full. Additionally, it can be similar to that of the '057 or '967 patents but without a tremolo mechanism, or other mechanisms, as well known in the art.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “tremolo” is inclusive of a device that is either incorporated with the bridge or the string anchoring mechanism.
For the purposes of the present invention, the term “hollow or solid bodied stringed musical instrument” can be a member selected from the group comprising an acoustic guitar, an electric guitar, an acoustic bass, an electric bass, a cello, a viola, and similar solid and hollow bodied string instruments.
For the purposes of the present invention, when reference is made to granite, in the following Description, it should be understood the reference is also applicable to other high density materials that are characterized by vibratically unifying the soundboard, strings, bridge system, pickups, neck and body in a time-correct sound transfer loop, and thereby enabling the stringed instrument to produce a balanced, compressed, and naturally equalized sound, with remarkable clarity and sustain, and with minimal distortion. In the category of solid minerals or stones, granite is a preferred material.
For the purposes of the present invention, when reference is made in the following. Description to a guitar, it should be understood the reference is equally applicable other stringed instruments that benefit from the use of high density materials that are characterized by vibratically unifying the sound transmitting components of the instruments, such as the soundboard, strings, bridge system, neck and body in a time-correct sound transfer loop, and thereby enabling the stringed instruments to produce a balanced, compressed, and naturally equalized sound, with remarkable clarity and sustain, and with minimal distortion.
Description
The stringed musical instrument will be described in relationship to a guitar, but the principles are applicable to other musical instruments as previously noted.
The guitar of FIG. 1 is generally indicated by arrow 100. The guitar has a neck stock 106 that is in acoustic contact with the neck joint block 108. An instrument pickup 110 is mounted on, and in acoustic contact with a granite block (i.e.; pickup tray block) that is not visible in the Fig. The same is true for the second instrument pickup 112.
The body of the guitar 100 is shown as solid wood 104 with a granite veneer layer (i.e.; soundboard) 102 acoustically bonded thereto.
A bridge 114 is secured by bridge studs to a granite block (i.e.; bridge block) that is not visible in FIG. 1. The strings 118 are secured to the body of the guitar by an anchoring mechanism 116, as well know in the art, which can be mounted to a granite block (i.e.; string block) that is not shown, or mounted directly to the granite soundboard. Either the bridge 114 or the anchoring mechanism 116 can be of the tremolo type, as well known in the art.
The granite veneer layer 102 functions as a thin soundboard. In the embodiment of a solid body guitar, the body can be thinner than a typical solid body guitar with the difference being about equal to the thickness of the granite layer that is applied to the top surface of the guitar. In this manner, the weight of the wood is reduced and the overall thickness of the body remains the same. The acoustic enhancement that is attained is attributed to the use of the granite soundboard and the other internal or external stone enhancements.
As illustrated in FIG. 2, in addition to the standard solid body configuration in which a recess or neck base 214 is provided for the base of the neck, recesses can be provided for granite blocks or pickup trays 201 and 210. The depth of each recess is set to conform to the dimensions of the instrument pickups and not all instrument pickup recesses need be of the same depth. The granite pickup trays are located under the two instrument pickups that are employed in this embodiment. Obviously, the number of pickups can vary from one to three or even four if desired. Preferably, a thin granite block, generally referred to herein as a pickup tray, is used beneath each pickup, but less than all pickups can be mounted on a pickup tray. Additionally a bridge block 202 is provided under the soundboard to maximize the transfer of the acoustic vibrations to the body of the guitar.
Additionally, a neck joint block 212 can be provided to maximize the acoustic contact between the base of the “neck” and the body 200 of the guitar. Additionally, a granite neck joint block 212 can be in acoustic contact with the base of the neck of the guitar, the body 200 of the guitar, the granite acoustic transfer rods 204 and 206 and the pickup tray 210. Thus, the neck is in enhancing acoustic contact with the soundboard. The combination of sound transmission from the neck joint to the transfer rods, the pickup trays resting on and in acoustic contact with the sound transfer rods, and the bridge and string block having a snug fit or bonding fit to the backside of the soundboard makes all the vibrations work in unison.
Acoustic contact between the various granite blocks is achieved using one or more transfer rods 204 and 206. As illustrated in FIG. 2, two granite transfer bars, 204 and 206 are employed, but fewer or additional transfer rods or bars can be used.
The bars are seen in a perspective view in FIG. 2, and in a side view in FIG. 3. The transfer bars 308 can be about three eighths of an inch thick and sufficiently long to reach from the bridge block 316 to the neck joint block 302. The dimensions are determined by the dimensions of the stringed instrument, and the determination is within the ability of one of ordinary skill in the art. The height of the transfer rods 308 is determined in part by the dimensions of the instruments pickups 304 and 312, and the need to have sufficient mass of the rods set into the body 330 of the guitar. A dimension of about a half of an inch, from the bottom of the tray 306 to the bottom of the transfer rod is generally preferred. Advantageously, the dimension from the bottom of the rod 308 to the bottom surface of the granite soundboard 310 is about one inch. Preferably, the neck joint block 302 extends into the wood solid body about one quarter of an inch in order to have an acoustic integration with the body of the guitar.
In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the sound transfer rods 308 are supported by a support member 432. The support member 432 can be integrally formed with the transfer rod 308 or can be a separate element, as for example, a wooden support member. The support member 432 is preferably supported on the inner surface of the backside of the hollow wooden body 430.
As illustrated in FIG. 5, the soundboard 500 is provided with a cutaway region 502 for receiving the neck of the guitar, a cutaway region 504 to receive an instrument pickup, a cutaway region 506 to receive another instrument pickup, a cutaway region 508 to receive a bridge block and a cutaway region 510 to receive a string anchoring mechanism.
As illustrated in FIG. 6, the neck cutaway region 502 can extend to the instrument pickup cutaway region 504, in order to prove a region 602 to accommodate the neck block.
It is critical that the bars are in firm contact and the same technique can be used to bond the blocks together as is used to bond the granite soundboard 310 to the body 330. Alternatively, or in addition thereto, a press or wedge fit can be used to wedge the blocks in place and acoustically bond the blocks and transfer rods together. A wedge fit of the neck joint block to the wood of the guitar enhances the vibration transfer from the guitar body to the joint block and subsequently to the soundboard.
The anchoring of the strings can be through the use of prior art devices that can be anchored to the granite soundboard. In another embodiment of the invention, as illustrated in FIG. 7, the soundboard 700 is provided with a string hole 703 that is smaller in diameter than the ball or ring 704 at the anchoring end of the string 702. Access to the hole is achieved through the hole 706 in the backside of the solid body 708 of the guitar.
In another embodiment as illustrated in FIG. 8, the string 802 passes through a countersunk hole 812 in the soundboard 800 and is mounted in a granite block (i.e.; string block) 820 that is mount to the underside of the soundboard 800. The string anchor block 820 is provided with a countersunk hole for receiving the string 802 and nesting of the ball, ring, or the like at the end of the string 802. The hole 806 in the body 808 of the guitar provides access to the anchor block 820.
In a further embodiment as illustrated in FIG. 9, the soundboard 902 is provided with a keyhole slot 900 for each string. The ball, ring, or the like at the end of the string has a diameter less than that of the large opening in the keyhole. A recess in the solid body accommodates the ball, ring, or the like at the end of the string. A hollow body instrument would not have an equivalent recess since the entire body is in essence, a cavity.
The use of granite blocks and a granite soundboard is not only applicable to solid bodied electric guitars, basses and the like, but also to hollow bodied acoustic guitars and the like.
As illustrated in FIG. 10 and FIG. 11, the stone 1002, such as granite, can be inserted into a recess 1004 in the top of the soundboard. This provides the advantage that the otherwise exposed edge of the stone top layer is not seen and do not required being processed to provide a polished edge surface. The manufacturing cost and time is significantly improved by virtue of the elimination of the edge finishing step. The thickness of the sound enhancing insert is as thin as possible from a manufacturing standpoint, while thick enough to provide a mass that is sufficient to contribute to the desired sound enhancing quality of the system. The required thickness must be correlated with the density of the top layer, insert, or inlay. In the example of granite, the thickness is preferably from one eight of an inch to one sixteenth of an inch, and preferably about three thirty seconds of an inch. The preferred weight range for the soundboard is about one half pound to three quarters of a pound. The weight range holds true for all materials, whereas thickness varies in relation to the density of the soundboard material.
In the embodiment of FIG. 11, the insert can be in the form of an inlay 1102 that at least covers the region from the string anchor 116, to the neck block 108 or the neck 106. The inlay can be of any desired shape. The use of an inlay provides a mechanism for reducing the weight of a granite top layer, without having to reduce the thickness of the granite.
Similarly, in the embodiment of FIG. 12, the inlay 1202 can extend further into the neck region 106, than the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 11. A single inlay or multiple inlay can employed, though the use of a single inlay is preferred.
It should be understood that other components as well known in the art can be used, as for example a tremolo, or other devices now known or that may come into use in the future. Granite grounding blocks linked together by transfer rods, such as 106, can be used with one or more of such other devices.
The granite blocks preferably weigh between 5 and 10 ounces and have dimensions in the range from ⅛ inch thick for the block that supports an acoustic pick up, ¼ inch thick for a block that supports a bridge, weight of 8 ozs for each of two transfer rods, and 2 oz each and ½ oz for the neck joint block. The weights and dimensions set forth herein are preferred for the average solid body guitar and can be varied based on the requirements of specific stringed instruments. Variations or adjustments can also be made to provide a range of acoustic enhancements, as needed.
Preferably, the bridge block is in direct acoustic contact with the transfer rods and the pickup trays are in direct acoustic contact with the neck joint and the soundboard. Contact between the various granite blocks and the soundboard can be achieved through the use of a granite acoustic transmission or sound transfer rod. Specifically, the granite transfer rod is in acoustic contact with the soundboard and a plurality of granite blocks. Preferably, each granite block that is in acoustic contact with an electric pickup component is in acoustic contact with the soundboard via a sound transfer rod. The stone, in particular granite, that is used for the pickup tray should be substantially free of metals that can interfere with electromagnetic pickups or produce an electric ground. Black Absolute granite from India is substantially free of the zinc and copper that can be found in granite. Black Galaxy granite is preferred for the bridge block, neck joint block, and transfer rods.
Granites, like most natural materials, vary in their properties. The following tables illustrate comparative densities of solid minerals, ceramics, and metals. The tables illustrate that a metal such as Tungsten has a density that is roughly 30 times that of a typical wood, such as teak, ceramics can have a density that is roughly 20 times that of a wood such as Teak, and granites have a density that is roughly 4 times that of a wood such as Teak.
It should be recognized that there is a range of densities for woods, minerals, ceramics, and metals. Advantageously, the high sound conductivity material has specific gravity of at least 2. Preferably, the high sound conductivity material has a specific gravity of at least 4, and more preferably, at least 6. The selection of a high density material should be consistent, that is, at least equal to the ability of granite to enhance the sounds produced at the lower end. The sounds produced by the deeper notes tend to be garbled to an extent that is difficult or impossible to clean up electronically. The dense material, such as granite, produces sound that is coherent, tight, and well defined.
All documents, patents, journal articles and other materials cited in the present application are hereby incorporated by reference.
Although the present invention has been fully described in conjunction with several embodiments thereof with reference to the accompanying drawings, it is to be understood that various changes and modifications may be apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications are to be understood as included within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims, unless they depart therefrom.
TABLES
Density/Specific Gravity
MineralKg/cu · cm
Basalt, solid3011
Dolomite, solid2899
Glass, window2579
Granite, solid2691
Marble, solid2563
Soapstone talc2400
Wood - seasoned & dryKg/cu · m
Afromosia705
Apple660-830
Ash, black540
Ash, white670
Aspen420
Balsa170
Bamboo300-400
Birch (British)670
Cedar, red380
Cypress510
Douglas Fir530
Ebony 960-1120
Elm (English)600
Elm (Wych)690
Elm (Rock)815
Iroko655
Larch590
Lignum Vitae1280-1370
Mahogany (Honduras)545
Mahogany (African)495-850
Maple755
Oak590-930
Pine (Oregon)530
Pine (Canadian)350-560
Pine (Red)370-660
Redwood (American)450
Redwood (European)510
Spruce ( Canadian)450
Sycamore590
Teak630-720
Willow420
Metal or alloykg/cu · m
aluminium - melted2560-2640
aluminium bronze (3-10% Al)7700-8700
beryllium copper8100-8250
brass - casting8400-8700
brass - rolled and drawn8430-8730
bronze - lead7700-8700
bronze - phosphorous8780-8920
bronze (8-14% Sn)7400-8900
cast iron6800-7800
gold19320
iron 7850
lead11340
silver10490
steel - rolled 7850
steel - stainless7480-8000
tin 7280
titanium 4500
tungsten19600
white metal 7100
zinc 7135
Aluminium has a sp g of 2.5. Its density is
2.5 × 62.4 = 156 lbs/cu.ft.
[Sorted by Material Category]
[Sorted by Density]
Specific
Densities sorted by Material Categorygravity
CeramicAlumina3.9
CeramicBeO2.85
CeramicBoron Carbide2.5
CeramicBorosilicate Glass2.3
CeramicHafnium Carbide12.76
CeramicSilicon Nitride3.28
CeramicSilicon carbide3.2
CeramicSintered SiC3.1
CeramicTiC4.94
CeramicTungsten Carbide15.715,700 kg/cu · m
CeramicVanadium Carbide5.71
CeramicZirconium Carbide6.56
CompositeCarbon-Carbon Composite1.65
LiquidWater, 4° C.0.99997
MetalAluminum2.6432,643 kg/cu · m
MetalAluminum bronze7.7027,702 kg/cubic
meter
MetalAluminum, 2024-T32.77
MetalAluminum, 6061-T62.7
MetalAluminum, 7079-T62.74
MetalBeryllium1.8477
MetalBrass8.5538,553 kg/cu · m
MetalBronze, aluminum7.702
MetalBronze, phosphor8.8
MetalBronze, ~11% Tin8.1
MetalCarbon Steel7.84
MetalCarbon Tool Steel7.82
MetalCobalt8.8
MetalCopper, Pure8.9
MetalCopper, cast-rolled8.906
MetalGerman Silver8.586
MetalGold Coin (US)17.19
MetalGold, Pure19.32
MetalGold, cast-hammered19.3
MetalHigh Speed Tool Steel8.75
MetalIron, Cast, Pig7.207
MetalIron, Ferrosilicon6.984
MetalLead11.37
MetalManganese7.608
MetalMolybdenum, wrought10.3
MetalMonel Metal, rolled8.688
MetalNickel8.602
MetalPure Iron7.86
MetalSilver, Pure10.5
MetalSoft Steel (0.06% C)7.87
MetalStainless 27Cr7.47
MetalStainless Steel, 3048.03
MetalTantalum16.6
MetalThorium, Ind. melted11.6
MetalTin, cast-hammered7.352
MetalTitanium4.5
MetalTungsten18.8218,820 kg/cu · m
MetalWrought Iron7.75
MetalZinc, Cast7.049
MetalZirconium6.3798
PlasticHDPE0.955
PlasticKevlar 1491.47
WoodBirch0.705
WoodCherry0.433
WoodMahogony0.705
WoodRed Oak0.673
WoodSouthern Pine0.65
WoodSugar Maple0.689
WoodWalnut0.593
Densities sorted by Material Density
Density
CategoryMaterial(g/cc)
WoodCherry0.433
WoodWalnut0.593
WoodSouthern Pine0.65
WoodRed Oak0.673
WoodSugar Maple0.689
WoodBirch0.705
WoodMahogony0.705705
kg/cu · m
PlasticHDPE0.955
LiquidWater, 4° C.0.99997
PlasticPolyurethane1
CeramicGraphite2.163
CeramicQuartz Glass2.2
CeramicBorosilicate Glass2.3
CeramicBoron Carbide2.5
CeramicAluminosilicate2.6
CeramicGlass2.6
MetalAluminum2.643
MetalAluminum, 2024-T32.77
CeramicLead Glass2.8
CeramicMullite2.82
CeramicBeO2.85
CeramicRB-SiC3.09
CeramicSintered SiC3.1
CeramicSilicon Nitride3.28
CeramicAlumina, 85%3.41
CeramicAlumina, 99.9%3.96
MetalTitanium4.5
CeramicTiC4.94
CeramicVanadium Carbide5.71
CeramicMg-PSZ5.75
CeramicPSZ5.75
CeramicZirconia5.75
MetalZirconium6.3798
CeramicZirconium Carbide6.56
MetalIron, Ferrosilicon6.984
MetalZinc, Cast7.049
MetalIron, grey cast7.079
MetalTin, cast-hammered7.352
MetalStainless 27Cr7.47
MetalManganese7.608
MetalIron, wrought7.658
MetalAluminum bronze7.702
MetalSteel, tool7.715
MetalPure Iron7.86
MetalSoft Steel (0.06% C)7.87
MetalStainless 18Cr-8Ni8.03
MetalStainless Steel, 3048.03
MetalBrass8.553
MetalGerman Silver8.586
MetalNickel8.602
MetalMonel Metal, rolled8.688
MetalHigh Speed Tool Steel8.75
MetalBronze, phosphor8.8
MetalCopper, Pure8.9
MetalNickel, Pure8.9
MetalCopper, cast-rolled8.906
MetalMolybdenum, wrought10.3
MetalSilver, Pure10.5
MetalLead11.37
CeramicHafnium Carbide12.76
CeramicTungsten Carbide15.7
CeramicWC/Tungsten Carbide15.7
MetalTantalum16.6
MetalTungsten18.82
Note:
kg/cu · m divided by 16.02 = lbs/cu.ft = 2500 KG/cu · m
COMPARISONkg/cu · m
WoodTeak630-720
MineralGranite, solid2,691  ~4X
CeramicTungsten Carbide15,700 >20X
MetalTungsten18,820 ~30X


ABSTRACT

A piano (1) having a dense sound-enhancing component (2), said piano (1) having a case (6), a frame (3) located within the case (6), strings (5) located within the frame (3), keys (9) in connection with hammers (11), two bridges (13) each of stone having a top face (27), a bottom face (28), a first side (29) and a second side (30), bridge pins (16) extending from the top face (27) at an angle, the strings (5) extending across the bridges (13) adjacent to the bridge pins (16), a soundboard (4) and an amount of epoxy (18) located between the bridges (13) and soundboard (4). The dense sound-enhancing component (2) is a stone material, preferably granite, and enhances the sound of the piano (1) by holding and sustaining pitch longer, providing a longer and stronger signal, providing a higher volume or decibel level and having a decreased decibel fall-off as compared to conventional pianos utilizing wood bridge(s).

Pianos are comprised of several major parts, including a frame, a soundboard, at least one bridge, a plurality of strings, an action, a plurality of pedals, a plurality of ribs and a case. The frame is the skeleton of cast iron on which the strings are stretched. The soundboard is a softwood resonating agent which vibrates from the percussion on the strings and amplifies the tone. The bridges are made of wood and are located on the front side of the soundboard. The action, which includes the keys and hammers, is located within the case, which is all exterior parts of the piano, such as the lid, sides, arms, music shelf, fallboard, etc., as a whole. The ribs are located on the underside of the soundboard and help to keep the proper forward curve in the soundboard. When the keys are struck, the hammers strike the strings located on the frame. The bass and treble bridges transfer the vibrations of the strings to the soundboard, resulting in tone. Dampers, which are small, felt-covered pieces of wood, rest against the piano strings in normal position. The dampers lift from the strings when a key is struck. When the keys are released, the sound is dampened due to the damper returning to the string, thereby causing the string to stop vibrating.

It is well recognized that wood, in particular aged wood, is the conventionally utilized material for most of the parts of the piano, including the bridges and soundboard. Although wood does, in fact, transmit sound, the sound transmitted is not optimal as when compared to other the sound transmission utilizing other sound transmitting materials, most notably, dense sound-enhancing materials, such as granite or any other type of stone or rock.

Similarly, although a user may not readily find the volume of a piano to be sub-par. Because conventional pianos utilize wood as a bridge and wood absorbs sound, not all of the sound is transmitted, thereby decreasing the sound output as when compared to utilizing a bridge that does not absorb sound.

 The dense sound-enhancing component, which is a stone material, preferably granite, enhances the sound of the piano by holding and sustaining pitch longer, providing a longer and stronger signal, providing a higher volume or decibel level and having a decreased decibel fall-off as compared to conventional pianos utilizing wood bridge(s). The contacting means is preferably epoxy, specifically penetrating epoxy, so as to eliminate buzz or vibration. The bridge(s) may also include a plurality of slopes and knurls to accommodate the strings.












https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/newsreleases/2016/march/eggshell-nanoparticles.html

egg shells nano particles
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/260758379_fig4_SEM-image-of-the-Egg-shell-CaO-900



The shells were washed, ground up in polypropylene glycol and then exposed to ultrasonic waves that broke the shell fragments down into nanoparticles more than 350,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Then, in a laboratory study, they infused a small fraction of these particles, each shaped like a deck of cards, into the 70/30 mixture of PBAT and PLA. The researchers found that this addition made the mixture 700 percent more flexible than other bioplastic blends. They say this pliability could make it ideal for use in retail packaging, grocery bags and food containers — including egg cartons.



The Egg’s Shell
It makes sense to start from the outside of the egg and work our way in, so let’s begin with the egg’s shell. It’s made primarily from calcium carbonate, the chemical compound which also makes up the majority of sea shells, as well as chalk and limestone. Nanoparticles of calcium carbonate are arranged into ordered crystals by proteins, eventually forming the calcite mineral that makes up the shell. The shell isn’t actually completely solid – it has thousands of tiny pores, around 9,000 on average, which allow gases to pass in and out. As we’ll see later, this can have implications for cooking.
The colour of egg shells can also vary; chicken eggs tend to be somewhere on a colour spectrum between white and brown, but the eggs of other avian species can also encompass blue or green hues. This colouration is due to the deposition of pigment molecules on the eggshell whilst it is being formed in the chicken’s oviduct. Some of these pigments, such as protoporphyrin, the pigment that gives shells a brown colour, are breakdown products of haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying compound found in blood. Others, such as oocyanin which gives blue and green colours, are side-products from the formation of bile. White egg shells have an absence of pigment molecules.